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The difference between microprocessor and cpu

Время публикации: 2019-08-01

What is a microprocessor?

A microprocessor consists of a central processor consisting of one or a few large-scale integrated circuits. These circuits perform the functions of control components and arithmetic logic components. The microprocessor can perform operations such as fetching instructions, executing instructions, and exchanging information with external memory and logic components, and is an arithmetic control part of the microcomputer. It can be combined with a memory and a peripheral circuit chip to form a microcomputer.

Microprocessor internal structure

The 16-bit microprocessor (the 8086 microprocessor in the figure) can be divided into two parts, one is the execution unit (EU), which is the part that executes the instruction; the other part is the bus interface unit (BIU), which is connected to the 8086 bus and executed. The operation of fetching instructions from memory. After the microprocessor is divided into EU and BIU, the operation of fetching instructions and executing instructions can be overlapped. The EU section has a register file consisting of eight 16-bit registers that can be used to store data, index and stack pointers, arithmetic logic units (ALUs) to perform arithmetic operations and logic operations, and flag registers to register the conditions of these operational results. These components in the execution unit transfer data over the data bus. The bus interface component also has a register file, where CS, DS, SS, and ES are segmentation registers that store spatial segments. IP is the instruction pointer. The internal communication register is also a register that temporarily stores data. The instruction queue stores the prefetched instruction stream. The bus interface component also has an address adder that adds the segment register value to the offset value to obtain a 20-bit physical address. The data and address are linked to the outside 8086 system bus via bus control logic. The 8086 has a 16-bit data bus that transfers 16-bit binary numbers in a single pass when the processor is transmitting data off-chip. The 8086 has a primary pipeline structure that allows for overlap between on-chip operation and off-chip operation.


Microprocessor classification

According to the application field of microprocessors, microprocessors can be roughly divided into three categories: general-purpose high-performance microprocessors, embedded microprocessors and digital signal processors, and microcontrollers. In general, general-purpose processors pursue high performance, they are used to run general-purpose software, equipped with a complete, complex operating system; embedded microprocessors emphasize the high performance of processing specific application problems, mainly for running dedicated programs for specific fields. Equipped with a lightweight operating system, mainly used in consumer appliances such as cellular phones and CD players; the price of microcontrollers is relatively low, and the demand is the largest in the microprocessor market, mainly used in the fields of automobiles, air conditioners, and automatic machinery. Automatic control equipment.

What is cpu

The Central Processing Unit (CPU) is a very large-scale integrated circuit that is the computing core (Core) and Control Unit of a computer. Its function is mainly to explain computer instructions and to process data in computer software. The central processing unit mainly includes an arithmetic unit (Arithmetic Logic Unit, ALU, Arithmetic Logic Unit) and a cache (Cache) and a bus (Bus) for realizing data (Data), control and status between them. It is combined with internal memory (Memory) and input/output (I/O) devices as the three core components of the computer.


CPU physical structure

The CPU includes arithmetic logic components, register components, control components, and the like.

Logical component

English Logic components; arithmetic logic components. You can perform fixed-point or floating-point arithmetic operations, shift operations, and logic operations, as well as address operations and conversions.


Register components, including registers, special registers, and control registers. General-purpose registers can be divided into points and floating-point numbers. They are used to store register operands and intermediate (or final) operation results that are temporarily stored during instruction execution. General purpose registers are one of the important components of a central processing unit.

Control unit

English Control unit; control component, mainly responsible for decoding the instructions, and issuing control signals for each operation to be performed for each instruction.

There are two kinds of structures: one is micro-program control with micro-storage as the core; the other is control mode based on logical hard-wired structure.

The microcode is maintained in micro memory. Each microcode corresponds to a basic micro-operation, also called microinstruction; each instruction is composed of microcodes of different sequences, and the microcode sequence constitutes a microprogram. After the central processor decodes the instructions, a certain timing control signal is issued, and a plurality of micro-operations determined by the micro-codes are executed in the order of the given sequence in micro-cycles to complete the execution of an instruction.

Simple instructions consist of (3 ~ 5) micro-operations, and complex instructions consist of dozens of micro-operations and even hundreds of micro-operations.

Is the microprocessor cpu and the difference?

The microprocessor is not a cpu. A microprocessor consists of a central processor consisting of one or a few large-scale integrated circuits. The full name of the CPU is the central processing unit, which is one of the main devices of the electronic computer and the core component in the computer. Its function is mainly to explain computer instructions and to process data in computer software. All operations in the computer are handled by the CPU, which decodes the instructions and executes the core components of the instructions.

Microprocessors are the collective name for microprocessors such as CPUs, GPUs for graphics cards, processors for mobile phones, and processors for smart appliances. The so-called processor is a component that performs all computing functions.

The microprocessor is obviously micro, low power consumption, low frequency, low function, and now refers to the processing unit used by small electronic devices such as mobile phones and household appliances; the CPU of large computers obviously cannot be called microprocessor or even pc The cpu is generally not called a microprocessor.


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